Falcons in Florida (With Pictures)

Falcons in Florida (With Pictures)

In the azure skies of Florida, a group of awe-inspiring hunters reign supreme – the Falcons. With their impressive aerial acrobatics and lightning-fast dives, these magnificent birds of prey have captivated the imaginations of observers for centuries. From the marshy wetlands to the coastal plains, Florida’s diverse habitats provide an ideal landscape for falcons to showcase their exceptional hunting prowess.

This article delves into the intriguing world of falcons in Florida, uncovering their fascinating behaviors, unique adaptations, and vital ecological role. As masterful predators, falcons play a crucial part in controlling local prey populations, ensuring a balanced ecosystem.

We will explore the various falcon species that call Florida home, such as the Peregrine Falcon and the American Kestrel, unraveling their distinctive features and remarkable survival strategies. Join us on this thrilling journey to witness the breathtaking beauty and untamed power of falcons soaring high above the Sunshine State’s enchanting landscapes.

1. Peregrine Falcon

  • Scientific name: Falco peregrinus
  • Life span: 8-15 years
  • Size: 14-19 inches (36-48 cm)
  • Weight: 1.1-3.3 pounds (500-1500 grams)
  • Wingspan: 3-4 feet (90-120 cm)
  • Status: Least Concern

With a remarkable geographical range spanning across North America, Europe, and Asia, this magnificent raptor has earned its place as an icon of adaptability and resilience. Cloaked in feathers of slate-gray, its slender form and powerful wings hint at the agility and grace it possesses in flight.

Its sharp, obsidian eyes exude a focused intensity, embodying the spirit of a daring aviator. Amidst the awe-inspiring attributes of this falcon, a delightful fact emerges – the Peregrine Falcon has been recorded as one of the most widespread bird species on Earth, showcasing its ability to thrive in diverse environments.

Close-up of a peregrine falcon


During the spring breeding season, male Peregrine Falcons put on an awe-inspiring aerial performance to attract potential mates. These displays showcase their strength, agility, and hunting prowess as they engage in high-speed chases, steep dives, and impressive acrobatic maneuvers. If a female shows interest, she joins the male, and together they perform captivating aerial dances, circling and diving in perfect harmony.

Known for their cliff-dwelling nesting habits, Peregrine Falcons construct their nests, known as “scrapes,” using materials such as gravel, dirt, feathers, grass, or moss. Exhibiting monogamous behavior, they often mate for life, returning to the same nest site year after year. Both partners diligently collaborate to maintain and protect the nest, ensuring a safe haven for their future offspring.

In their courtship rituals, Peregrine Falcons engage in tender behaviors like mutual preening and food-sharing mid-air. Their diet primarily consists of medium-sized birds like doves and pigeons, but they can also capture larger prey, including ducks and small mammals.

Once endangered due to the harmful effects of pesticides like DDT, Peregrine Falcons faced significant challenges, including thinning eggshells, declining fertility, and low chick survival rates. However, dedicated conservation efforts in the 1970s, including banning DDT and implementing captive breeding programs, played a crucial role in their recovery.

Peregrine Falcon

While the species has rebounded in many areas, habitat loss remains a persistent threat. Thus, ongoing conservation initiatives are vital to secure their continued revival and ensure their survival for generations to come.

2. American Kestrel

  • Scientific name: Falco sparverius
  • Life span: 5-10 years
  • Size: 8-12 inches (20-30 cm)
  • Weight: 2.8-5.8 ounces (80-164 grams)
  • Wingspan: 20-24 inches (51-61 cm)
  • Status: Least Concern

In the vast expanse of North America, from the Arctic tundra to the tropics, the American Kestrel commands attention with its striking presence. This captivating falcon boasts a broad geographical range, making it a dynamic inhabitant of diverse landscapes. Cloaked in a mesmerizing array of colors, its vivid plumage showcases a delightful mix of rusty reds, deep blues, and bright whites, painting a portrait of true avian beauty.

Notably, the male’s dashing attire flaunts striking blue-gray wings, while the female exhibits regal streaks across her chest. But there’s more to this vibrant vigilante! Beyond its captivating appearance, the American Kestrel is celebrated for its exceptional hovering abilities, capable of remaining suspended mid-air, almost akin to a feathered acrobat.

An American Kestrel diving for prey


When it comes to nesting, American Kestrels in Florida sure know how to pick a cozy spot! These cunning aviators prefer natural tree cavities or abandoned woodpecker holes to raise their broods. With meticulous attention to detail, they line their nests with soft materials like feathers and grass, creating a snug and secure haven for their precious chicks. Like devoted parents, they tirelessly guard their nest sites, ready to take on any intruders that dare to disturb their feathered family.

American Kestrels showcase impressive hunting skills, preying on a diverse menu of insects, small mammals, and birds. Their swift dives and precise aerial acrobatics enable them to capture their prey with efficiency. They are adept hover-hunters, staying airborne while scanning the ground for potential meals.

The American Kestrels of Florida have faced their share of challenges throughout history. But fret not! These valiant birds have been the recipients of conservation efforts that have helped secure their place in the Sunshine State’s avian kingdom. Concerned wildlife enthusiasts, along with organizations, have stepped up to protect their nesting sites, preserve natural habitats, and raise awareness about their importance.

3. Merlin

  • Scientific name: Falco columbarius
  • Life span: 5-10 years
  • Size: 9-11 inches (23-28 cm)
  • Weight: 5-7 ounces (140-198 grams)
  • Wingspan: 20-26 inches (51-66 cm)
  • Status: Least Concern

Roaming the vast expanses of North America, Europe, and Asia, the Merlin is a captivating bird of prey that commands attention with its striking presence. Cloaked in sleek feathers of various hues, ranging from deep charcoal to rich cinnamon, its plumage exudes an air of mystery and allure. Its elegant, compact build makes it a nimble aerial acrobat, darting through the skies with incredible agility. But there’s more to this enigmatic raptor!

A fun fact worth mentioning – the Merlin has earned a reputation as a “falcon of the forest” due to its exceptional hunting skills amidst wooded habitats.

Merlin Bird


Merlins demonstrate resourcefulness by reusing crow or magpie nests, selecting diverse habitats such as cliffs and abandoned buildings for nesting. They fiercely protect their nests and provide a safe environment for their chicks to learn and grow. Once the young Merlins fledge, they receive guidance from their parents in honing their hunting skills.

Merlins in Florida have a varied diet, with a preference for small songbirds like sparrows, finches, and warblers. They are also known to occasionally hunt larger birds like jays and woodpeckers. Their hunting strategy involves impressive speed and agility during high-speed chases and mid-air acrobatics to catch their prey.

The Merlin population in Florida is considered stable, earning them a “Least Concern” status on the IUCN Red List. However, in other regions, habitat loss and hunting have led to population declines. Past conservation efforts and protective measures have contributed to population recoveries.

Close-up picture of a Merlin falcon

By continuing to protect their habitats and recognizing their ecological importance, we can ensure the preservation of these remarkable raptors in Florida.

4. Crested Caracara

  • Scientific name: Caracara cheriway
  • Life span: Up to 20 years
  • Size: 52-60 cm (20-24 inches)
  • Weight: 900-1,500 grams (2-3.3 pounds)
  • Wingspan: 120-132 cm (47-52 inches)
  • Status: Least Concern

In the sprawling landscapes of the Americas, from the southern United States to Argentina, the Crested Caracara proudly graces the skies. With its broad geographical range, this captivating raptor finds its home in diverse habitats, from open savannas to coastal marshes.

Sporting striking plumage, the Crested Caracara features a distinct combination of black, white, and rusty orange, accentuating its unique and regal appearance. As its name suggests, a prominent feathered crest adorns its head, adding to its charismatic charm. But beneath its arresting facade lies an unexpected secret – this bird of prey is not only a skilled hunter but also a resourceful opportunist, with a penchant for scavenging.

A Crested Carara taking a stroll near the water

In Florida, the Crested Caracara exhibits practical nesting habits, selecting large trees or utility poles as their nesting sites. Their nests provide a vantage point to monitor their surroundings, ensuring the safety of their chicks. They diligently nurture and impart vital survival skills to their young before they fledge and venture into the world.

The Crested Caracara displays a diverse diet, including small mammals, reptiles, insects, and carrion. Their versatility as both hunters and scavengers enables them to thrive by taking advantage of various food sources available in their habitat.

The Crested Caracara population in Florida has faced challenges, but conservation efforts have proven effective in safeguarding these raptors. Conservation initiatives and protective measures have led to improvements in their numbers, reflecting the significance of habitat preservation and public awareness for their continued survival.

Where to look for Falcons in Florida

Florida offers excellent opportunities to spot Falcons amidst its diverse landscapes. To catch a glimpse of these majestic raptors, consider exploring open fields, marshes, coastal areas, and urban parks, where Falcons are commonly sighted. Early mornings and late afternoons are ideal times to observe their activities as they hunt for prey or engage in aerial displays.

For the best chances of spotting Falcons, equip yourself with a pair of binoculars or a spotting scope, allowing you to observe them from a safe distance without disturbing their natural behaviors. Look for elevated perches, such as power lines or tall trees, where Falcons often perch to scan their surroundings for potential prey.

Good areas to find falcons in Florida include but are certainly not limited to:

  • Everglades National Park: The vast marshlands of the Everglades provide an excellent habitat for Falcons, particularly the Peregrine Falcon and the Merlin. Keep an eye on open fields and waterways for their swift aerial maneuvers.
  • Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge: Situated along the Atlantic coast, this refuge offers prime opportunities to observe Falcons, including the American Kestrel and the Crested Caracara. Look for them perched on dead trees or utility poles.
  • Paynes Prairie Preserve State Park: This diverse park is a haven for Falcons, where you may spot the Peregrine Falcon and the American Kestrel. Hike along the trails or visit the observation points for potential sightings.
  • Big Cypress National Preserve: This vast wilderness supports a healthy population of Falcons, with chances to observe the Peregrine Falcon and the Merlin. Explore the preserve’s boardwalks and lookouts for a chance encounter.

Remember, while observing Falcons in their natural habitats, practice responsible wildlife viewing by maintaining a respectful distance and minimizing any potential disturbance to ensure the well-being of these captivating birds.

Conclusion

In the boundless skies of Florida, falcons reign as extraordinary avian predators, captivating our hearts with their grace and prowess. From the rugged cliffs of the Chiricahua Mountains to the serene deserts of Sedona, these majestic birds find their homes. As we venture into these remarkable landscapes, let us cherish the opportunity to witness the awe-inspiring falcons in flight.

Through our appreciation and conservation efforts, we can ensure that these magnificent creatures continue to inspire and thrive, enriching the natural heritage of Florida for generations to come.

Join the discussion

3 comments
  • Peregrines & Merlins don’t breed in FL present in winter & as migrants. The Am. Kestrel is seriously declining throughout its range. The southeastern race is listed as threatened. Caracara are uncommon mostly found in south central peninsula principally west of Lk. Okeechobee. They generally inhabit cattle ranches & hide their nests in palmetto trees.

    • Hi!
      Thank you for the great comment.
      That’s correct, neither the Peregrine falcon nor Merlin breeds in Florida, but they’re both common winter guests.
      Yes, sadly due to habitat destruction and human development, many of the structures like lone trees, and removal of pine forests have lead to a steep decline over the last 70 years. There needs to be made long-term conservation efforts for their habitats like open pineland habitats and nestbox installations.
      That is true, the Crested Caracaras in Florida are very isolated and some scientists even say they’re genetically distinct!
      We have updated article.

  • I believe I just spotted a soaring and circling Peregin Falcon above my deck which is already up on the 50th floor and I am in Miami. I had enough time today look at it’s spotted white grey underbody and thinner tail and black dash or something around eyes – and smaller size than a regular red tail hawk –

    But it is January 5th is it even possible for them to be here? Am I definitely mistaken?