Falcons in Arizona

Falcons in Arizona

The southwestern region of the United States, including Arizona, provides an ideal habitat for several species of falcons, attracting these magnificent birds with its rugged canyons, open deserts, and expansive grasslands. From the swift and agile Prairie Falcon to the strikingly marked Crested Caracara, these avian marvels showcase nature’s mastery of aerial prowess and adaptability.

In this article, we delve into the world of falcons in Arizona, exploring their intriguing behaviors, remarkable physical attributes, and the conservation efforts that ensure their continued existence in the wild. Join us as we embark on a journey to discover the captivating world of these majestic predators, uncovering their role in the delicate balance of Arizona’s ecosystems and the captivating stories that surround their presence in the Southwest skies.

1. Peregrine Falcon

  • Scientific name: Falco peregrinus
  • Life span: 8-15 years
  • Size: 14-19 inches (36-48 cm)
  • Weight: 1.1-3.3 pounds (500-1500 grams)
  • Wingspan: 3-4 feet (90-120 cm)
  • Status: Least Concern

The Peregrine Falcon, a majestic bird of prey, is renowned for its incredible speed and aerial hunting abilities. It is widely distributed across all continents except Antarctica, making it one of the most globally prevalent bird species. In North America, this remarkable falcon thrives in diverse habitats, ranging from coastal cliffs to urban skyscrapers.

Sporting sleek, blue-gray feathers and distinctive black “mustache” markings on its face, the Peregrine Falcon possesses notable physical characteristics. Adult males and females share a similar appearance, with females generally being larger in size.

Close-up of a peregrine falcon

During the breeding season in spring, male Peregrine Falcons perform impressive aerial displays to attract mates. These displays showcase their strength, agility, and hunting skills through high-speed chases, steep dives, and acrobatic maneuvers. If a female is interested, she joins the male, and they fly together, circling and diving in unison.

Peregrine Falcons are known for nesting on cliffs and rocky outcroppings. Their nests, called “scrapes,” consist of materials like gravel, dirt, feathers, grass, or moss. They exhibit monogamous behavior, often mating for life and returning to the same nest site each year. Both partners collaborate to maintain and protect the nest.

Courtship behaviors include mutual preening, feeding each other, and the male presenting food mid-air. Their diet primarily consists of medium-sized birds like doves and pigeons, but they can also capture larger prey such as ducks and small mammals.

Once endangered due to pesticide use, particularly DDT, Peregrine Falcons faced thinning eggshells, declining fertility, and chick survival rates. Conservation efforts in the 1970s, including banning DDT and captive breeding programs, aided their recovery.

The species has rebounded in many areas but still faces threats like habitat loss. Ongoing conservation efforts are crucial for their continued revival and survival.

2. American Kestrel

  • Scientific name: Falco sparverius
  • Life span: 5-10 years
  • Size: 8-12 inches (20-30 cm)
  • Weight: 2.8-5.8 ounces (80-164 grams)
  • Wingspan: 20-24 inches (51-61 cm)
  • Status: Least Concern

The American Kestrel, a small yet formidable bird of prey native to Arizona, showcases remarkable hunting skills and a stunning appearance. Widely distributed across North America, it adapts to diverse habitats, including grasslands and urban areas.

With a captivating plumage of rust-colored back and tail, blue-gray wings, and a distinctive white and black face pattern, the American Kestrel’s appearance is striking. Both males and females exhibit similar markings, with females generally being larger.

An American Kestrel diving for prey

During the non-breeding season in Arizona, American Kestrels are solitary birds. However, from late March to mid-June, they form monogamous pairs and engage in complex courtship behaviors. To attract a mate, the male American Kestrel performs aerial displays that showcase its strength, agility, and hunting skills.

These displays involve high-speed chases, steep dives, and acrobatic maneuvers. Once a pair is formed, the female selects a nesting site, typically a natural tree cavity or man-made nest box. The male contributes nesting materials, and the female constructs the nest using twigs, grass, and feathers.

American Kestrels primarily feed on insects, small rodents, and birds, adjusting their diet based on prey availability and season. They hunt from perches, scanning for prey and diving down to capture it with their sharp talons.

These kestrels face conservation concerns, with declining populations attributed to habitat loss, pesticide use, and competition for nesting sites from invasive species. Efforts are underway to protect and restore habitats and provide additional nesting sites through nest boxes.

3. Merlin

  • Scientific name: Falco columbarius
  • Life span: 5-10 years
  • Size: 9-11 inches (23-28 cm)
  • Weight: 5-7 ounces (140-198 grams)
  • Wingspan: 20-26 inches (51-66 cm)
  • Status: Least Concern

The Merlin, a small yet formidable bird of prey native to Arizona, is recognized for its nimble flight and formidable hunting skills. It is widely distributed across the northern hemisphere and thrives in diverse habitats such as boreal forests, grasslands, and coastal regions.

With its eye-catching appearance, the Merlin displays dark blue-gray feathers on its back and wings, accompanied by a rusty-red breast and underparts. While males and females share similar markings, females generally have a larger size.

Close-up picture of a Merlin falcon

The Merlin, a breeding bird of prey in Arizona’s boreal forests, engages in courtship flights and vocalizations during the breeding season. They form pairs and solidify their bond through aerial displays. Mating for life, they return to the same nesting site annually.

Nesting in diverse habitats like forests, cliffs, and abandoned buildings, Merlins repurpose crow or magpie nests. They defend their nests fiercely and nurture their young. After fledging, the chicks remain with their parents to learn hunting skills before becoming independent.

Merlins are fierce predators, primarily targeting small songbirds like sparrows, finches, and warblers, and occasionally larger birds such as jays and woodpeckers. They exhibit impressive speed and agility during high-speed chases and mid-air acrobatics to secure their prey.

The IUCN Red List categorizes Merlins as “Least Concern” with stable populations in Arizona. However, habitat loss and hunting caused declines elsewhere. Historic exploitation for the millinery trade led to significant population declines, but conservation efforts and protective measures have led to population recoveries.

4. Crested Caracara

  • Scientific name: Caracara cheriway
  • Life span: Up to 20 years
  • Size: 52-60 cm (20-24 inches)
  • Weight: 900-1,500 grams (2-3.3 pounds)
  • Wingspan: 120-132 cm (47-52 inches)
  • Status: Least Concern

Found in parts of North, Central, and South America, these captivating creatures grace the skies with their presence. With their striking plumage of rich brown, white, and black, highlighted by a crest atop their regal heads, they are a sight to behold. Not your average bird of prey, the Crested Caracara stands out with their unique facial expressions, resembling a cunning yet charming smile.

And here’s a fun fact: Did you know that Crested Caracaras are skilled scavengers, often taking advantage of roadkill and even stealing food from other birds? With their alluring looks and cunning ways, the Crested Caracara certainly adds a touch of intrigue to the avian world.

A Crested Carara taking a stroll near the water

Crested Caracaras are meticulous nest builders, constructing large nests made of sticks and branches in tall trees or cacti. They exhibit a unique cooperative breeding behavior, with family groups assisting in raising the young.

These groups consist of breeding pairs, their offspring from previous years, and sometimes unrelated individuals. This communal effort ensures the protection and care of the nest and promotes a sense of unity within the group.

The Crested Caracara is an opportunistic omnivore, with a varied diet. While they primarily feed on carrion, including roadkill and the leftovers of other animals’ meals, they also consume small mammals, reptiles, amphibians, birds, eggs, and insects. Their scavenging habits are supplemented with active hunting, where they search for prey on the ground or in the air. This adaptable diet allows the Crested Caracara to thrive in a variety of habitats.

The Crested Caracara has faced both positive and negative conservation outcomes. Historically, this species was persecuted due to being mistakenly labeled as a threat to livestock, leading to population declines in certain regions.

However, conservation efforts, including habitat preservation and awareness campaigns, have helped to protect and restore the populations. Today, the Crested Caracara is listed as a species of least concern on the IUCN Red List, but continued monitoring and conservation efforts are essential to ensure their long-term survival.

5. Prairie Falcon

  • Scientific name: Falco mexicanus
  • Life span: 10-15 years
  • Size: 35-46 cm (14-18 inches)
  • Weight: 500-750 grams (1.1-1.7 pounds)
  • Wingspan: 84-114 cm (33-45 inches)
  • Status: Least Concern

Roaming the vast open spaces of North America, the Prairie Falcon graces the skies with its majestic presence. With a geographical range spanning from the western regions of the United States to the prairies of Canada, this remarkable bird captivates with its striking appearance.

Adorned with a blend of earthy tones, from warm browns to pale creams, its plumage harmonizes perfectly with the landscapes it calls home. The Prairie Falcon’s sharp eyes and streamlined physique equip it for high-speed aerial pursuits.

A Prairie Falcon ready for take-off

Prairie Falcons typically nest on cliff ledges, utilizing rocky outcrops and crevices as their chosen sites. They construct simple scrape nests, lining them with gravel, twigs, and other available materials.

Mating pairs are monogamous and exhibit strong site fidelity, often returning to the same nesting location year after year. They fiercely defend their territories and nesting sites from intruders, displaying impressive aerial displays to protect their young.

As skilled predators, Prairie Falcons have a varied diet consisting mainly of small to medium-sized birds. They are adept at hunting in open grasslands, using their exceptional speed and agility to chase down prey in mid-air. Ground-dwelling mammals and insects also contribute to their diet. With their keen eyesight and remarkable aerial skills, Prairie Falcons excel in capturing their prey through precise and swift aerial strikes.

The Prairie Falcon has a stable population and is not currently classified as a species of concern. However, conservation efforts have focused on preserving suitable nesting habitats, maintaining prey availability, and minimizing disturbance to their territories.

Protecting cliffs and promoting sustainable land management practices are vital for the long-term conservation of this species. Historical conservation actions have helped maintain stable populations, ensuring the continued presence of the magnificent Prairie Falcon in its natural habitats.

Where to look for Falcons in Arizona

Arizona, with its diverse landscapes and abundant wildlife, offers ample opportunities to spot falcons in their natural habitats. Here are four excellent areas where you can increase your chances of encountering these magnificent birds of prey.

  • Chiricahua Mountains: Located in southeastern Arizona, the Chiricahua Mountains provide a haven for a variety of raptors, including falcons. The rocky cliffs and canyons offer ideal nesting sites and hunting grounds. Hiking along trails such as the Echo Canyon Trail or exploring scenic drives like the Chiricahua National Monument can lead to rewarding falcon sightings.
  • San Pedro Riparian National Conservation Area: Situated in southeastern Arizona near Sierra Vista, this conservation area is known for its lush riparian habitat along the San Pedro River. The river’s riparian zone attracts numerous bird species, including falcons. Take a leisurely walk along the San Pedro House Trails or join guided birding tours to observe falcons and other avian wonders.
  • Sedona and Oak Creek Canyon: The dramatic red rock formations of Sedona and the picturesque Oak Creek Canyon offer breathtaking scenery and excellent opportunities to spot falcons. Look for falcons soaring above the cliffs, scanning the area for prey. Explore trails like Devil’s Bridge, West Fork Trail, or Cathedral Rock to enjoy the stunning landscapes while keeping an eye out for these majestic birds.
  • Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument: Located in southern Arizona, this desert oasis is a protected area known for its unique flora and fauna. The diverse habitat of Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument attracts various raptor species, including falcons. Drive along the scenic Ajo Mountain Drive or hike the Estes Canyon Trail to enjoy the breathtaking desert scenery while keeping a lookout for falcons perched on cacti or soaring through the sky.

When searching for falcons, it’s essential to be patient and observant. Look for open areas, cliffs, and prominent perches where they may be hunting or resting. Binoculars or a spotting scope can enhance your chances of spotting these birds from a distance. It’s also beneficial to visit these areas during the falcons’ active times, such as early morning or late afternoon when they are more likely to be active and visible.

Remember, while enjoying the beauty of these locations, it’s crucial to respect wildlife and their habitats by observing from a safe distance and minimizing disturbance. By exploring these incredible Arizona landscapes, you can immerse yourself in nature’s wonder and potentially witness the awe-inspiring falcons in their natural element.


In the boundless skies of Arizona, falcons reign as extraordinary avian predators, captivating our hearts with their grace and prowess. From the rugged cliffs of the Chiricahua Mountains to the serene deserts of Sedona, these majestic birds find their homes.

As we venture into these remarkable landscapes, let us cherish the opportunity to witness the awe-inspiring falcons in flight. Through our appreciation and conservation efforts, we can ensure that these magnificent creatures continue to inspire and thrive, enriching the natural heritage of Arizona for generations to come.

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