copyright: Owen Chiang
Rather small but robust bunting, with spiky bill and rather short tail contributing to flight silhouette suggestive of Fringilla. En all plumages, ground-color of little-streaked underparts yellowish, outer tail-feathers show white.
Adult male has narrow black-brown necklace, rich brown back, white lesser and median coverts, and whitish wing-bar, front of head and throat black when breeding.
Female and immature have heavily striped head, broadly streaked back, double whitish wing-bar, and streaked flanks.
Call assists separation from other large Emberiza. Sexes dissimilar, some seasonal variation.
In west Palearctic breeds in boreal zone. Favours moist or wet, often riverside or floodland sites, with willow and birch thickets or spinneys, interspersed with tall grass. Occurs in low-lying wet or dry meadows with tall herbage and scattered shrubs, riverside thickets and shrubby willows in river flood zones, fields and boggy areas with secondary scrub, open burnt forest, mountain meadows with scrub and scattered trees, birch forest edge, and sparse growth of young forest.
In Nederland in 1995 waargenomen en geaccepteerd
Seeds and other plant material, invertebrates in breeding season.
Emberiza aureola breeds in wet meadows with tall vegetation and scattered scrub, riverside thickets and secondary scrub across the northern Palearctic. Its range includes Finland, Belarus and Ukraine in the west, through Kazakstan, China and Mongolia, to far eastern Russia, Korea and northern Japan. In the autumn, birds stop-over in large numbers to moult in the Yangtze Valley, China before continuing on to their winter quarters. It winters in large flocks in cultivated areas, rice fields, reedbeds and grasslands throughout a relatively small area in southern and south-east Asia which includes eastern Nepal, north-east India, Bangladesh, Myanmar, southern China, Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam and Thailand1. It is considered to be Near Threatened because of recent severe declines noted in some breeding areas (e.g. Hokkaido2) and concerns over the levels of trapping at migration and wintering sites2,3. Breeding declines in Mongolia are attributed to the recent dry conditions and its impact on breeding habitat7. Numbers at wintering sites appear to be declining across its range [conservation status from birdlife.org]
Mid June to early July in Finland, June in Moscow range.
Nest site is on the ground, either on tussock, in dry depression, nest-rim at times flush with ground, sheltered by scrub, commonly birch or willow, or in tree roots, where wet, often slightly above ground in bush or stout herb.
Nest, foundation of dry grass and stalks lined with soft grass, rootlets, and sometimes hair. Clutch range from 4 to 5, incubation done by both parents lasts 13 to 14 days.
Paleartic breeding range from Finland, Belarus to Ukraine. Winters from Nepal and ne Indian sub-continent e to se Asia, s China and Taiwan. (Sibley Charles G. 1996)
- spanwidth min.: 21 cm
- spanwidth max.: 24 cm
- size min.: 14 cm
- size max.: 15 cm
- incubation min.: 13 days
- incubation max.: 14 days
- fledging min.: 11 days
- fledging max.: 14 days
- broods 1
- eggs min.: 4
- eggs max.: 5
- Conservation Status
- Emberiza aureola ornata
- Emberiza aureola aureola
- Emberiza aureola
- EU n, e