White-headed Duck1996

White-headed Duck1996

Summary:

Species Action Plans White-headed Duck (Oxyura leucocephala)

Despite uncertainty about the possible large-scale inter-year movement of birds between wintering sites, mid-winter counts indicate that the population of this species has undergone a very rapid decline, which qualifies it as Endangered. The Spanish subpopulation has now stabilised, and it is projected that the global rate of decline will be lower in the next ten years. [source: Birdlife.org]

Despite uncertainty about the possible large-scale inter-year movement of birds between wintering sites, mid-winter counts indicate that the population of this species has undergone a very rapid decline, which qualifies it as Endangered. The Spanish subpopulation has now stabilised, and it is projected that the global rate of decline will be lower in the next ten years. [source: Birdlife.org]

White-headed Duck[White-headed Duck (Oxyura leucocephala) Europe 2006]
The White-headed Duck is a highly aquatic diving duck of the stifftail tribe Oxyurini. Globally, there are four populations; two of which are declining, one stable and one increasing. The decreasing populations include the main Central Asian population of 5,000-10,000 birds and the Pakistan wintering population, which is on the verge of extinction. The resident North African population (400-600 birds) is stable and the Spanish population (ca. 2,500 birds) increasing. The White-headed Duck occurs regularly in 26 countries, and in another 22 as a vagrant. Nine countries hold significant breeding numbers (Algeria, Islamic Republic of Iran, Kazakhstan, Mongolia, Russian Federation, Spain, Tunisia, Turkey, and Uzbekistan), but most are concentrated in Mongolia, Kazakhstan, Russian Federation, and Spain. Birds occur commonly on migration in 10 countries, and in winter (December to February) in 13. The most important wintering countries differ from year-to-year, presumably depending on weather conditions. In recent years, 10 countries have held over 1,000 birds (Azerbaijan, Bulgaria, Greece, Islamic Republic of Iran, Israel, Kazakhstan, Russian Federation, Spain, Turkey, and Uzbekistan – see Table 2). Seven countries hold significant numbers of birds throughout the year (Algeria, Islamic Republic of Iran, Russian Federation, Spain, Tunisia, Turkey, and Uzbekistan).

Citation

Hughes, B., Robinson, J.A., Green, A.J., Li, Z.W.D. & Mundkur, T. (Compilers). 2006. International Single Species Action Plan for the Conservation of the White-headed Duck Oxyura leucocephala. CMS Technical Series No. 13 & AEWA Technical Series No.8. Bonn, Germany.

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White-headed Duck[White-headed Duck (Oxyura leucocephala) Europe 1996]
The White-headed Duck Oxyura leucocephala has undergone a considerable decline in range and population size this century, with the destruction and degradation of habitat and hunting being the causes. The Spanish population has recently recovered rapidly after being near to extinction in the 1970s. There has been considerable attention paid to the species in Turkey since 1989 which has led to conservation measures being taken at Burdur Gölü, a site that holds most of the world population in winter. Numbers appear to be roughly stable in most countries, but many key sites are not effectively protected, and the threats to them have the potential to cause rapid population declines in the near future. The species is incredibly easy to shoot, making hunting a much more significant threat than for most waterbirds. In recent years, it has become clear that the spread of introduced North American Ruddy Ducks (Oxyura jamaicensis) poses the most severe threat to the White-headed Duck, owing to the free hybridisation between the two species. A concerted, cooperative international effort is urgently required to stop and reverse the spread of the Ruddy Duck across the Western Palearctic before this becomes impossible. The species has now been recorded in 20 countries, with the United Kingdom holding by far the largest population, and hybridisation is already posing a serious problem in White-headed Duck sites in Spain. The extinction of the White-headed Duck is only likely to be prevented if rapid action is taken to control Ruddy Ducks (which may include eradication) in all countries where it occurs. Both action in the field to remove wild individuals, and in captivity to prevent the escape of more birds, is essential.

Citation

A. GREEN and B. HUGHESACTION (1996). PLAN FOR THE WHITE-HEADED DUCK (Oxyura leucocephala) IN EUROPE

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Conservation Status

  • #naam# status Endangered
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