Little Crake

Little Crake


Profile Little Crake     Literature page Little

[order] Gruiformes | [family] Rallidae | [latin] Porzana parva | [UK] Little Crake | [FR] Marouette poussin | [DE] KleinesSumpfhuhn | [ES] Polluela Bastarda | [IT] Schiribilla | [NL] Klein Waterhoen


Klein Waterhoen determination

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Marked sexual dimorphism in plumage. Male has blue-grey face and underparts, with narrow white bars on rear flanks and black and white barring on undertail-coverts.
Female has blue-grey replaced by buff except for pale ash grey lupercilium, lores and cheeks, and whitish chin and throat.
Slim shape, produced by relatively long neck, wings, tail and legs, is useful distinction from sympatric Porzana species.

In breeding season occurs typically in temperate and steppe zones, usually in lowlands but occasionally to 2000 m. Frequents dense emergent vegetation of freshwater wetlands, including margins of lakes and rivers, and flooded woodland

Porzana parva is a widespread but patchily distributed summer visitor to Europe, which
constitutes >75% of its global breeding range. Its European breeding population is
relatively small (This small rail inhabits permanent swamps – especially deep Phragmites or Typha reed beds – in temperate, boreal, Mediterranean and steppe regions of Europe and western Asia. Its continuous distribution extends from central Europe to Kazakhstan and Sinkiang. In Western Europe its distribution is very fragmented. Its wintering quarters are in eastern sub-Saharan Africa. The population of the European Union (12 Member States) is difficult to estimate, but can be estimated at between 50 and 500 breeding pairs for a total European population amounting to 25000-120000 pairs

Mostly insects, especially water beetles and also Hemiptera, Neuroptera, and adult and larval Diptera, and also seeds and aquatic plants, worms, gastropods, spiders and water mites.

This species has a large range, with an estimated global Extent of Occurrence of 1,000,000-10,000,000 km². It has a large global population estimated to be 100,000-1,000,000 individuals (Wetlands International 2002). Global population trends have not been quantified, but the species is not believed to approach the thresholds for the population decline criterion of the IUCN Red List (i.e. declining more than 30% in ten years or three generations). For these reasons, the species is evaluated as Least Concern [conservation status from]

Breeds from May to August in Central Europe. Monogamous and territorial, pair-bond maintained only during breeding season.
Nest a shallow of plant stems and leaves, placed in thick vegetation near or over water, often raised on tussock or platform of dead material. 7-9 eggs are laid, incubation 21-23 days tended by both sexes.

Migratory, but winter distribution imperfectly known due to secretive behaviour. In Britain, 31 records 1958-95, occurring both spring and autumn, with peak in early November, and twice in January. Also recorded rarely in winter Netherlands and Hungary, though otherwise withdraws south in autumn, occurring as migrant on all larger Mediterranean islands. Normal winter range for west Palearctic breeders believed to be Mediterranean basin (perhaps a minority), north-east and East Africa (south to equator in Kenya and Uganda), and possibly Arabia, Iraq, and Iran; in practice, however, rather few mid-winter records anywhere. Not recorded sub-Saharan Africa west of Sudan, except in Sénégal (September-November), but this apparent absence from much of northern tropics probably delusive in view of passage through Maghreb and Libya.
Migration periods ill-defined. Movement apparent by late August, probably at height September-October, tailing off in November. Spring return mainly late March and through April, though in Mediterranean begins late February and continues at least until mid-May.


  1. Measurements
  2. spanwidth min.: 34 cm
  3. spanwidth max.: 40 cm
  4. size min.: 17 cm
  5. size max.: 19 cm
  6. Breeding
  7. incubation min.: 15 days
  8. incubation max.: 17 days
  9. fledging min.: 45 days
  10. fledging max.: 50 days
  11. broods 1
  12. eggs min.: 7
  13. eggs max.: 9
  14. Conservation Status
  15. Klein Waterhoen status Least Concern


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