Note the incomplete eye-ring, broken by a dark spot above the eye. A small, olive-brown vireo with two broad white wing bars, a partial eye-ring, and a large lig
ht loral spot. When excited, will twitch its wings like a kinglet.
Woods and adjacent brush; prefers oaks.
Breeds in oak and pine-oak forests, preferring evergreen oaks, or in tall chaparral. Also lives in mountain canyons in sycamores, maples, and willows along streams. In Pacific states, may be found in the shrubby understory of humi
d Douglas-fir and redwood forests. Winters in breeding habitat, also sometimes in thickets along lowland streams.
Mostly insects, some berries.
Diet is not known in detail, but feeds mainly on insects (including some that seem large for small size of bird) such as caterpillars, beetles, and crickets, as well as spiders. Also eats some berries and small fruits, and some plant galls.
This species has an extremely large range, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the range size criterion (Extent of Occurrence 30% decline over ten years or three generations). The population size is extremely large, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population size criterion (10% in ten years or three generations, or with a specified population structure). For these reasons the species is evaluated as Least Concern. [conservation status from birdlife.org]
Male sings almost constantly during breeding season to defend nesting territory. In courtship display, male approaches female, fluffs out his plumage, spreads his tail, and gives a whining call.
Nest: Often in oak, sometimes in coniferous tree, usually 6-
25 above the ground. Round cup-shaped nest is supported by the rim woven onto a forked twig, with bottom of nest hanging suspended in midair. Nest (built by both sexes) is made of
bark fibers, lichens, moss, grass, bound together with spider webs, lined with fine grass. Outside of nest often covered with whitish plant down and spider egg cases.
Clutch 4, sometimes 3-5. White with a few brown specks near larger end. Incubation is by both parents, about 14 days. Cowbirds often lay eggs in nests of this species.
Young: Both parents feed nestlings. Young leave the nest at about 14 days of age.
Southwestern British Columbia to Guatemala.
b Migration: Mostly a permanent resident, but a few show up in fall and winter along lowland streams where the species is not present in summer.
- spanwidth min.: 18 cm
- spanwidth max.: 20 cm
- size min.: 13 cm
- size max.: 14 cm
- incubation min.: 16 days
- incubation max.: 17 days
- fledging min.: 16 days
- fledging max.: 17 days
- broods 1
- eggs min.: 3
- eggs max.: 5
- Conservation Status
- Vireo huttoni vulcani
- Vireo huttoni mexicanus
- Vireo huttoni pacificus
- Vireo huttoni carolinae
- Vireo huttoni stephensi
- Vireo huttoni cognatus
- Vireo huttoni unitti
- Vireo huttoni huttoni
- Vireo huttoni sierrae
- Vireo huttoni parkesi
- Vireo huttoni obscurus
- Vireo huttoni
- NA, MA sw Canada to w Guatemala