The Griffon Vulture immediately betrays itself by its size (L 100 cm) and characteristic pale colours, contrasting with dark colours of wings and tail. The species normally breeds colonially on cliffs (rarely in trees) mainly in mountainous regions. They inhabit a wide variety of open areas with few or no trees, where they feeds mainly in carrion. Resident.
The largest numbers of Eurasian Griffon Vultures are found in Spain, but there are significant populations in Turkey, Gibraltar, and Bosphorus. They favor the more southern parts of their range, and can tolerate inclement weather such as rain, mist, and snow fairly well. Though they avoid wetlands and marine areas, they are very fond of fresh and running water, for bathing and drinking.
Gyps fulvus is a widespread but patchily distributed resident in southern Europe,
which accounts for less than half of its global range. Its European breeding population
is relatively small (This vulture inhabits southern Europe, North Africa and from south-western Asia to southern China. Most European birds are sedentary. The population of the European Union amounts to 8800-9000 breeding pairs. Because of heavy persecution and poisoning it has strongly declined since the middle of last century. More recently changes in the methods of raising domestic livestock have reduced the availability of the Griffon Vulture’s food. Since 1970 however Spanish and French populations have increased, mainly thanks to effective protection measures and withdrawal of long-lasting pesticides. In France its breeding distribution has even been extended through a reintroduction programme. In Italy, Portugal and Greece the decline is still in progress
One of the Old World vultures, Griffons cannot smell. They find food by soaring high, scanning the land for signs of a kill, or for stationary bodies. Often, the vultures will wait on the outskirts of a feeding frenzy, closing in once the mammalian scavengers have gone. Their weak beaks are not designed for ripping open fresh hides. They depend on predators or larger vultures to begin the work for them. Once they can access a carcass, the vultures will gorge themselves. Their crop can hold up to 13 pounds of meat
This species has a large range, with an estimated global Extent of Occurrence of 10,000,000 km2. It has a large global population estimated to be 100,000-1,000,000 individuals (Ferguson-Lees et al. 2001). Global population trends have not been quantified; there is evidence of population fluctuations (Ferguson-Lees et al. 2001), but the species is not believed to approach the thresholds for the population decline criterion of the IUCN Red List (i.e. declining more than 30% in ten years or three generations). For these reasons, the species is evaluated as Least Concern. [conservation status from birdlife.org]
Griffons pair for life. They build nests of grass and twigs on cliff ledges. Mating takes place on the same steep cliff faces where the birds construct their nests, and the female lays one or two eggs 2 months after mating. Both parents tend the egg. Model parents, the griffons incubate their eggs by night, and shade them by day, as the temperature rises. Incubation lasts from 48 to 52 days. The young remain in the nest for 4 to 6 months. They can live upto 40 years. The griffon vulture is not teritorial and nests of several pairs can usually be found on nesting grounds.
This Vulture is resident and partially migratory, the latter probably mainly immatures. The biggest European population is found in Spain, mostly resident. The juveniles can wander southward in autumn, recoveries within Spain up to 600 km south of natal colony and exceptionally in Morocco. A Small-scale passage across Straits of Gibraltar has been observed spring and autumn. Limited southward passage occurs around east Mediterranean in September-October. Birds cross Bosporus each autumn; numbers augmented by some local birds during passage across Turkey, where mainly summer visitor to most regions though probably largely resident in south and south-west. Narrow-front passage over north Gulf of Suez (water crossing of 12-13 km), heading south-west in October, north-east in February-March. Winter range apparently north-east Africa but little known due to low numbers involved.
- spanwidth min.: 230 cm
- spanwidth max.: 265 cm
- size min.: 95 cm
- size max.: 110 cm
- incubation min.: 48 days
- incubation max.: 54 days
- fledging min.: 110 days
- fledging max.: 115 days
- broods 1
- eggs min.: 1
- eggs max.: 1
- Conservation Status
- Gyps fulvus fulvescens
- Afghanistan to n India
- Gyps fulvus fulvus
- s Europe and n Africa to c Asia
- Gyps fulvus
- AF, EU n AF, sw EU, also n India